You may be charged with a provincial offence under provincial laws, such as The Traffic Safety Act or The Alcohol and Gaming Regulation Act, or a criminal offence under federal laws such as the Criminal Code or the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
Criminal offences are determined by the federal government and are the same across Canada. Provincial and territorial laws vary from province to province.
No one can be convicted of an offence unless all the elements of the case against them can be proven beyond a reasonable doubt.
A person charged with a criminal offence may choose to defend the charge in court. Depending on the charge and the circumstances, there may be a number of defences open to the individual, including self-defence, provocation, alibi and defence of property.